Diatoms are a crucial component in the study of aquatic ecosystems and ancient environmental records. However, traditional methods for identifying diatoms, such as morphological taxonomy and molecular detection, are costly, are time consuming, and have limitations. To address these issues, we developed an extensive collection of diatom images, consisting of 7983 images from 160 genera and 1042 species, which we expanded to 49,843 through preprocessing, segmentation, and data augmentation. Our study compared the performance of different algorithms, including backbones, batch sizes, dynamic data augmentation, and static data augmentation on experimental results. We determined that the ResNet152 network outperformed other networks, producing the most accurate results with top-1 and top-5 accuracies of 85.97% and 95.26%, respectively, in identifying 1042 diatom species. Additionally, we propose a method that combines model prediction and cosine similarity to enhance the model's performance in low-probability predictions, achieving an 86.07% accuracy rate in diatom identification. Our research contributes significantly to the recognition and classification of diatom images and has potential applications in water quality assessment, ecological monitoring, and detecting changes in aquatic biodiversity.

Pu, S., Zhang, F., Shu,Y., and Fu, W. 2023. Microscopic image recognition of diatoms based on deep learning. Journal of Phycology, 59, 1166–1178